About the City

Cappadocia region was formed 60 million years ago by erosion of soft layers of lava and ash from Mount Erciyes (Argeus), Mount Hasan and Mount Güllü composing with wind and rain over millions of years.

Human settlement at the Cappadocia region dates back to the Paleolithic era. The lands where the Hittites once lived have been one of the most important centers of Christianity in the later periods. Houses and churches carved into the caves and rocks turned the region into a huge heaven for Christians escaping from the dominance of the Roman Empire.a.

Cappadocia is a region spreading an area covering the provinces particularly to Nevsehir, Kirsehir, Nigde, Aksaray and Kayseri.

In the 12th century BC, a dark period began in the region with the collapse of the Hittite Empire. During this period, the late Hittite Kings with effects of Assyria and Phrygia ruled the region. These Kingdoms lasted until the Persian invasion in the 6th century BC. The word used today, Cappadocia, means "Land of Beautiful Horses" in Persian. In 332 BC, Alexander the Great defeated the Persians and encountered great resistance in Cappadocia. During this period, the Kingdom of Cappadocia was established. The Roman power began to be felt in the region towards the end of the 3rd century BC. In the middle of 1st century, Kings of Cappadocia were appointed and toppled from the throne by the Roman Generals. When the last king of Cappadocia died in 17 AD, the region became a province of Rome.

The region nowdays has a great importance in terms of Tourism. The main worthseeing places are Ürgüp, Avanos, Göreme, Akvadi, Uçhisar and Ortahisar Castles, El Nazar Church, Aynalı Church (The Church with Mirrors) Güvercinlik Valley, Derinkuyu, Kaymaklı, Özkonak underground cities, Ihlara Valley, Selime Village, Çavuşin, Güllüdere Valley, Paşabağ and Zelve.

Traditional Cappadocian houses and dovecotes carved into caves reflect the uniqueness of the region. These houses have been constructed on hillsides by using rocks mainly in the 19th century. The Cappadocian Rock, is the only construction material of the region, as it is very soft after quarry due to the structure of the region, it can be easily processed but after contact with the air it hardens and turns into a very strong construction material. As a result of this easy and unique process, regional stonework is developed and turned into an architectural tradition. Upper parts of the doors built with arches are decorated with stylized ivy or rosette motifs. Dovecotes within the region are small structures constructed in 18th century and in the later of 19th century. Some of the dovecotes, which are important for showing Islamic picture art, had been constructed as monastery or church. Regional artists decorated the surfaces of dovecotes with rich inscriptions and adornments. The region is also famous for winemaking and grape growing.

Goreme National Park
Göreme National Park, which is on the UNESCO World Heritage List, has Göreme town, Göreme Open Air Museum and beautiful views. You can visit Cappadocia from the air with balloon tours.
Valleys and Fairy Chimneys
Pasabag Priests Valley, Zelve Valley and Open Air Museum, Ihlara Valley, Fairy Chimneys famous for their different shapes, Volcanic Hasan Mountain, settlements dating back centuries, and hidden rock churches are historical places that must be visited.
Uçhisar Castle – Uçhisar
You can see the extraordinary views of Güvercinlik Valley, Avanos, Ortahisar Castle and Göreme National Park from Uçhisar Castle, which is the highest point of the Cappadocia region and a place where the most beautiful fairy chimney formations can be observed.
Underground cities
Underground cities were built as invisible from the outside and became a living space in order to hide the people living here from the oppression, cruelty and invasion of the Roman Empire. The most famous ones are Kaymaklı, Derinkuyu and Mazı Underground cities.
Kızılırmak River
The Kızılırmak river divides Avanos into two; It has many activities and places to see, such as walking paths and trails around it, cafes, the famous Hanging Bridge and gondola tours on the river.